Apolipoprotein gene variants and susceptibility to essential hypertension in Cameroon
Background: Essential hypertension (EH) is determined by both genetic and environmental factors and their complex interactions. Apolipoprotein (Apo) ɛ gene polymorphisms have been reported to be at the basis of EH in some ethnic groups but not in others. This inconsistency suggests that the association of Apo ɛ gene polymorphism could be dependent on the ethnic group. Cameroon is comprised of three ethnic groups and such studies have never been carried out in any of these groups despite a prevalence of 47.35% in the Cameroonian community.
Objective: To investigate the relationship between Apo ɛ gene polymorphisms and EH in the Bantu ethnic group of Cameroon.
Design: Cross sectional study.
Setting: Bantu ethnic group of South West Cameroon.
Results: Whereas advanced age, SBP, DBP, lack of exercise and family history constituted risk factors of EH, sex, body mass index (BMI), Fasting blood sugar (FBS), lipid profile, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption did not. Following conduction of association studies between Apo ɛ gene variants and risk factors of EH, statistical analyses of genotype and allele frequencies revealed that the frequency of ɛ4 allele was statistically higher in the hypertensive than the normotensive group.
Conclusion: The ɛ4 allele predisposes Cameroonians of the Bantu ethnic group to EH.