Anemia in hospitalized patients in a referral hospital in Northern Tanzania
Background: Anemia is common among hospitalized patients, but data particularly on prevalence and classification are sparse for Tanzania. Documented data on these characteristics can help in better planning of admission procedures, blood bank and hospitals´ management.
Objective: Prevalence and classification of anemia in hospitalized patients at KCMC.
Design: Cross-sectional hospital-based study.
Setting: Medical Ward of the zonal referral hospital KCMC, located in Northern Tanzania.
Participants: All patients admissions to the Medical Ward at KCMC from October 2018 to March 2019.
Main outcome measures: Hemoglobin (Hb) levels, Mean Cell Volume (MCV) (microcytic, normocytic and macrocytic).
Materials and methods: Hb levels and MCV were evaluated at admission. Questionnaires obtained socio-demographic and clinical data. Multi-variate logistic-regression analysis was applied to determine associated factors.
Results: 399 participants with 55.1% females, mean age of 55.5 years, 77.2% from rural areas. Prevalence of anemia was 44.4%. Younger age groups (25-44 years) had the highest prevalence (52.6% and 51.9%) and 50.5% of female and 36.9% of male patients had anemia. Most common anemia was normocytic anemia (83.1%). Comorbidities with the highest percentage of anemia were HIV positivity (62.9%) and malignancies (61.9%), followed by CKD (60%), chronic liver diseases (45.5%) and heart failure (28.6%).
Conclusion: Anemia is common among young, hospitalized patients whereby normocytic anemia is most common and should prompt the focus on kidney failures, malignancies and other non-communicable diseases that are likely to play leading roles in etiology. Further studies are needed to confirm the link of anemia and NCD´s among hospitalized patients in Tanzanian