Pregnancy outcomes in mothers with advanced human immunodeficiency virus disease
AbstractObjective: To determine the impact of HIV disease on immediate maternal and foetal outcomes at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, between September 2004 and
April 2005. Subjects: Sixty eight mothers with advanced HIV disease (WHO clinical stage 3 and 4) and 68 HIV negative pregnant mothers.
Results: Mothers with advanced HIV disease were more likely to be anaemic (55% vs. 16% p<0.001), to have sexually transmitted diseases (56% vs. 15%, p=0.004), to have chorioamnionitis (14.8% vs. 2%, p=0.004), to develop preterm premature rupture of
membranes (31 % vs. 9%, p<0.001), to have puerperal pyrexia (16% vs. 2%, p=0.032) an to die (5% vs. 0.5%, p=0.028) compared to HIV negative mothers. The mean gestational age at deliver was lower in mothers with advanced HIV disease compared to the seronegative counterparts (73% vs. 32%, delivery<37 weeks, p<0.00l). Infants of
mothers with advanced HIV disease compared to infants of seronegative mothers were more likely to be low birth weight infants (58% vs. 21%, p<0.00l), stillborn (4% vs. 2%, p=0.308) and to have low Apgar scores (28% vs. 12%, Apgar score < 4 at 5 minutes
p=0.02). Perinatal sepsis and perinatal deaths were more common in infants born to mothers with advanced HIV disease compared to infants born to HIV negative mothers (8 vs. 3, p=0.003 and 14 vs. 5, p=0.025 respectively). External congenital anomalies were similar in the two groups (5.9% vs. 5.9%). Conclusion: Pregnancies complicated by advanced HIV disease are more likely to have adverse outcomes, both maternal and foetal. Advanced HIV disease is associated with
increased risk of both maternal and fetal mortality. HIV infected mothers should be counselled on the increased pregnancy risks associated with advanced disease.