Determinants of hyperleptinaemia in an African population

  • M Njelekela Department of Human and Environmental Science, Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan
  • S Kuga Department of Human and Environmental Science, Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan
  • J Hiraoka School of Human and Environmental Science, Mukogawa Women’s University, Hyogo, Japan
  • Z Masesa Department of Physiology, Muhimbili University, College of Health Sciences, P.O. Box 65001, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
  • J Ntogwisangu Department of Physiology, Muhimbili University, College of Health Sciences, P.O. Box 65001, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
  • Y Mashalla Department of Physiology, Muhimbili University, College of Health Sciences, P.O. Box 65001, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
  • K Ikeda School of Human and Environmental Science, Mukogawa Women’s University, Hyogo, Japan
  • J Mtabaji Department of Physiology, Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences, P.O. Box 65001, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
  • Y Nara Graduate School of Integrated Science and Art, University of East Asia, Shimonoseki, Japan
  • Y Yamori Graduate School of Integrated Science and Art, University of East Asia, Shimonoseki, Japan
  • K Tsuda, Department of Human and Environmental Science, Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan

Abstract

Objective: To examine the determinants for elevated plasma leptin concentration in normal weight (NW), obese (OB), and morbidly obese (MO) individuals in Tanzania.
Design: Cross-sectional epidemiological study, the CARDIAC study.
Setting: Three areas in Tanzania; Dar es Salaam, urban(U), Handeni, rural(R) and Monduli, pastoralists(P), in August 1998.
Subjects: Five hundred and forty five participants from a random sample of 600 people aged 46-58 years.
Main outcome measures: Plasma leptin concentrations, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), lipid profiles, haemoglobin Alc (HBA1c), and blood pressure (BP). Results: Plasma leptin concentrations were higher in women than in men (women; 16.0 ng/ mL, men; 3.1 ng/mL; p<0.0001). Women showed a higher mean body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) than men. In both genders, plasma leptin concentration, total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were significantly higher in OB than in NW participants. MO women had significantly higher leptin concentration, SBP and DBP compared with the other two groups. In NW men, log leptin concentrations showed a direct correlation with weight, BMI, HBAlc, TC, LDL-C, TG, SBP and DBP (all p<0.0001 except TG; p<0.001), while among NW women and OB men, weight and BMI correlated positively with log leptin (all p<0.05). OB women observed a positive correlation between log leptin and weight, BMI and LDL-C. Regression analysis indicated that among NW subjects, gender, BMI and TC explained 53.9% of the variation in log leptin. In OB subjects, gender, BMI and LDL-C explained 51.7% of the variability in leptin levels. No relationship was found between log leptin and CVD risk factors among MO subjects.
Conclusion: The most important determinants for hyperleptinaemia in NW participants were gender, BMI, TC, while in addition to these LDL-C, was an important determinant of leptin concentration in OB individuals. In MO women, the high leptin concentrations did not reflect the amount of adipose stores.

(E Afr Med J:2003 80(4): 195-199)
Published
2004-02-17
Section
Articles

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eISSN: 0012-835X