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The blood fluke Schistosoma haematobium mainly affects the lower genitourinary tract, where the pathological effects are a result of the reaction to the schistosome ova. The chronic effects cause damage to the musculature of the urinary tract resulting in scarring and fibrosis. The ureters dilate and or stricture. Contracture of the bladder and or detrussor failure may occur. Secondary calculi in the upper tracts and bladder are common. There is strong association with bladder cancer development of the squamous cell type. Emphasis is on the prevention of the infestation.