Management of undescended testes: a retrospective study from a tertiary hospital in Ethiopia
Background: Undescended testis is one of the commonest congenital malformations seen in boys. The aim of this study is to evaluate the pattern of presentation, approach to diagnosis, treatment and follow up in Tikur Anbesa Specialized Hospital, a tertiary teaching hospital in Ethiopia.
Methods: This is a retrospective cross sectional study of all boys with undescended testis operated in Tikur Anbesa Specialized Hospital between September 2012 and August 2014.
Results: Of 82 boys operated within the study period, 66 boys with 78 undescended testes are studied. Twenty-six percent (17/66)came before the age of 2 years, while the majority of the study group, 50% (33/66), presented beyond 5 years of age. Of the 17 boys brought to the hospital before 2 years, only 41% (7/17) them were treated before the age of two years. The majority 89% (59/66) of the boys were treated after 2 years of age. Seventy-one testes of 78 [91%] were in the inguinal canal, 5 were intra-abdominal and 2 were absent. 46% (36/78) were on the left side, 29% (23/78) on the right side and the rest were bilateral. Among the 54 boys who had ultrasound examination, the ultrasound report is consistent with operative findings in 33 [61%]. Associated congenital malformations were found in 31.8% (21/66) of the boys. Hypospadia was the predominant malformation comprising 38% (8/21) of the total congenital malformations. Orchidopexy was done for 82% (64/78) of the total testes, orchiectomy was done for 9% (7/78) and biopsy was taken in 1 case. Among the total operated boys only 62% (41/66) were followed in our clinic; of those who had follow up 10% (4/41) testes atrophied and 1 [2%] testis retracted.
Conclusion: Boys with undescended testes present and are treated late in Tikur Anbesa Hospital. As opposed to the literatures most of the undescended testes were found on the left side. Ultrasound examination cannot be the only mode of examination for undescended testes as it misses more than one third of the cases. Hypospadia is the commonest associated congenital malformation. Post operative follow up is very poor after treatment for undescended testes