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Ethiopian Journal of Agricultural Sciences

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Genetic Diversity of Ethiopian Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp] Genotypes Using Multivariate Analyses

Tesfaye Walle, Firew Mekbib, Berhanu Amsalu, Melaku Gedil

Abstract


አህፅሮት

ደገራ በድርቅ ተጋላጭ በሆኑ የኢትዮጵያ ክፍሎች የሚበቅልና ዝቅተኛ ገቢ ባላቸዉ አርሶ አደሮች የሚመረት ባለብዙ ጥቅም ጥራጥሬ ነዉ፡፡በደገራ ዝርያወች ዉስጥ ያለዉ የዘረመል ልዩነት መረጃ ማወቅ ለሰብል ማሻሻል እና አሁን ያሉትን የዘረመል ሀብቶች በብቃት ለመጠቀም በጣም አስፈላጊ ነዉ፡፡ስለዚህ ከጥናቱ ዓላማዎች መካከል፤ የስነቅርፅ ልዩነት እና መጠንን መገምገም እና የተተነተኑ ትንታኔዎችን በመጠቀም የስነ ባህሪ ብዝህነትን ለመለየት የሚያስችሏቸዉን ባህሪያት መለየት ነዉ፡፡የመስክ ሙከራዉ የተካሄደዉ በ2016 የመከር ወቅት በመልካሳ ግብርና ምርምር ማዕከል እና በመኢሶ ንዑስ ማእከል 324 የደገራ ዝርያዎችን በመጠቀም ነበር፡፡ የመጀመሪያዎቹ ሰባት ዋና አካላት principal components) ከጠቅላላዉ ልዩነት ሰባ ሰባት በመቶ አብራርተዋል፡፡ሁሉም በሚባል ደረጃ የተፈተኑ ማሳያዎች(ባህሪዎች) ለመጀመሪያዉ ፒሲ ዉስጥ ለተለዋዋጭነት ወሳኝ አስተወፅኦ ነበራቸዉ፡፡ ቁጥራዊ ባህሪ ላይ የተመሰረተ ትንተና በዘጠና በመቶ ተመሳሳይነት ደረጃ ስድስት የተለያዩ ቡድኖችን አሳይቷል፡፡የዘረመል ቡድኖች (clustering of genotypes)የጂኦግራፊያዊ ስርጭትና መገኛ መካከል ምንም ግኑኝነት እንደሌለዉ አመላክቷ፡፡ ከፍተኛዉ የሽግግር ቡድን በክላስተር 4 እና በክላስተር 5(D2 = 41.62) መካከል ተመዝግቧ፡፡የintra እና inter ቡድን ርቀት በቅደምተከተል ከ6.08 እስከ 22.72 እና 17.37 እስከ 41.61 ክፍሎች ነበር፡፡ ስለሆነም ከፍተኛ የሆኑ የዘረመል ርቀት በቡድን ዉስጥ እና መካከል ታይቷል፡፡የሚታየዉታይቷል፡፡የሚታየዉ ከፍተኛ የዘር ልዩነት ለወደፊቱ ለደገራ ማዳቀል እና እርባታ መርሀ ግብር በጣም የተሳሉ ወላጆችን በመምረጥ በጥቅም ላይ መዋል አለበት፡፡

 

Abstract

Cowpea is a multipurpose pulse crop grown by poor farmers in marginal and drought prone areas of Ethiopia. Information on the extent of genetic variation in cowpea genotypes is crucial to identify diverse genotypes for crop improvement and for efficient utilization of the existing genetic resources. Therefore, the objectives of the study were to assess the extent and pattern of morphological diversity among cowpea genotypes and to identify the traits contributing to the genetic diversity using multivariate analyses. The field experiment was conducted using 324 genotypes at Melkassa Agricultural Research Center and Miesso sub-center during the2016 cropping season. The first seven principal components explained 77% of the total variation. Almost all tested traits were important contributors to the variability in the first PC. The cluster analysis based on quantitative traits revealed six distinct groups at 90% similarity level. The clustering of genotypes did not follow patterns of geographical origin, indicating no relationship between genetic and geographic distribution. The highest inter cluster D2 was recorded between cluster IV and cluster VI (D2=41.62 units). The range of intra and inter cluster distance was 6.08 to 22.72 units and 17.37 to 41.62 units, respectively. Hence, the high genetic distance exhibited within and among clusters has to be exploited via crossing and selection of the most divergent parents for future cowpea breeding program.




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