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Chemical And Biological Study Of Aerial Parts Of Dill (Anethum Graveolens L.)
The composition of the hydrodistilled volatile oil from the aerial parts (before flowering stage) of Anethum graveolens L. family Apiaceae was investigated by GC/MS. Twenty eight components representing 99.76% of the total chemical composition of the oil were identified. Monoterpene hydrocarbons were found predominating in the studied oil amounting (80.81%) where - phellandrene (63 %) constituted the major compound. Meanwhile, oxygenated compounds reached up to (8.26%) with dill-ether (6.20%) which was the major compound. The unsaponifiable matter and fatty acids methyl esters of the aerial parts were identified and estimated by GLC analysis. - Sitosterol (3.92%) was the major sterol, followed by campesterol (2.50%) and stigmasterol (2.01%) and n-dotriacontane (58.40%) represented the major hydrocarbon in the unsaponifiable fraction. Linoleic acid (20.51%) was the major fatty acid present followed by Nonadecanoic acid (9.95%). The aqueous infusion of the herb being the mode of administration in pharmaceutical formula in the market was studied. The n-hexane extract of the aqueous infusion showed spots similar to essential oil spots when compared by TLC. Also the ethyl acetate extract of the aqueous infusion showed spots of furanocoumarines which are characteristic to the family. The essential oil exhibited significant antibacterial activity against gram positive as well as gram negative bacteria and showed moderate antifungal effect. The petroleum ether extract showed broad spectrum antibacterial activity and antifungal effect but was being less active than essential oil. Meanwhile the aqueous extract had no antimicrobial and antifungal at the concentration used in the experiment (4 mg / disc). The essential oil showed high antimycobacterial effect at a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranging from 3 to 50 µl/ml. The LD50 for essential oil and aqueous extract was determined. The volatile oil as well as aqueous extract of the aerial parts exhibited a significant diuretic effect, anti-inflammatory effect and cytotoxic activity against three cell lines. The antispasmodic effect of aqueous infusion was also studied and showed to be significant.
Egyptian Journal of Biomedical Sciences Vol. 23 (1) 2007: pp. 73-90