Effect of effluents discharge on public health in Ilorin Metropolis, Nigeria
The effects of effluent discharge on water bodies was assessed over the duration of 12 months (November 2013 to October, 2014) covering both the dry and wet seasons. Parameters collected at different points and measured include pH, Temperature, Salinity, Dissolved Oxygen, Nitrate, Zinc, Iron, Lead, Manganese, Potassium, as well as microbial qualities of the rivers. The pollution level of samples taken from all the main rivers in the study area was analyzed and compared with national and international standard for maximum permissible limit. It was observed that the values of pH, iron, Zinc, DO, Nitrate exceeded the permissible limit of the national standard and the World Health Organization. The coliform concentrations were unevenly distributed. It was highest at the downstream. The study revealed that there was an adverse effect on the physico-chemical characteristics of the receiving water bodies as a result of the discharge of effluents from industries, residential areas, abattoir and farms. This poses a health risk to several communities which rely on the receiving water bodies primarily as their sources of domestic water. Therefore there is urgent need for the intervention of regulatory agencies to ensure adequate monitoring of effluent discharge from industries and abattoirs as well as introduction of Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) which is a mapping tool for monitoring and management of effluent.
Keywords: Effluents, Effects, Water bodies, Ilorin Metropolis