Chemopreventive effect of Annona muricata on DMBA-induced cell proliferation in the breast tissues of female albino mice
Background: Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer and leading cause of cancer death in women. Breast cancer and cancer related diseases have been treated using surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy, or a combination of these. Despite these therapeutic options, cancer remains associated with high mortality. Traditional medicine which involves the use of herbs has been used to treat various types of cancer and this has been found to be effective with minimal or no side effects.
Aim: This research was aimed at evaluating the potential chemopreventive effect of an ethanolic extract of Annona muricata leaves on 7,12-dimethylbenzeneanthracene (DMBA)-induced cell proliferation in the breast tissues of female albino mice.
Materials and methods: A. muricata leaves, thirty (30) female albino mice, and 7,12-dimethylbenzeneanthracene (DMBA) were used for this study. Crude extraction protocol was employed in the preparation of an ethanolic extract of A. muricata leaves. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical screening of an ethanolic extract of A. muricata leaves was carried out using standard protocol. Agarose gel electrophoresis was used to analyze deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extracted from the breast tissues of experimental mice while hematoxylin and eosin staining was used for histological assay.
Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of terpenoid, steriod, flavonoids, cardiac glycoside, tannin, phenol, alkaloid, and reducing sugar. Phenol was quantitatively determined to be present in the highest amount. DNA smears obtained from agarose gel electrophoresis suggested possible DMBA-induced damage which was significantly prevented owing to the effect of the leaf extract of A. muricataleaves. Histological assay revealed the presence of DMBA induced lobular alveolar hyperplasia, adenomatoid hyperplasia, fibro adipose stroma, and proliferating sebaceous gland in the histological sections of the breast tissues of treated mice, however, these changes were found to vary in occurrence among the different groups of treated animals.
Keywords: Annona muricata; DMBA; Breast cancer; Phytochemical; Lobular alveolar hyperplasia