A retrospective study on fourteen year hemoglobin genotype variants recorded at five government hospitals in Akure, Ondo State, Southwestern Nigeria
Background: Hospital data are a useful source of information about health status of
people in a geographical location.
Aim of the study: An attempt was made to extend demographic data about hemoglobin variants and their prevalence in Southwestern Nigeria to Akure the capital city of Ondo state.
Subjects and methods: This study analyzed fourteen year (2000–2013) hemoglobin (Hb) genotypes records from five state government hospitals in Akure, Ondo State, Southwestern, Nigeria. In the fourteen year record, a total of 56,218 hemoglobin genotypes were subjected to analyses in terms of a variety of hemoglobin genotypes and their prevalence in the area. The gene frequency was also calculated for this trait among the residents in Akure metropolis.
Results and conclusion: Six hemoglobin genotypes were identified as HbAA, HbAS, HbAC, HbSS, HbSC and HbCC. The overall average values of their prevalence in decreasing order were HbAA (88.11%)> HbAS (10.23%)> HbAC (0.78%) >HbSS (0.72%), HbSC (0.15%) and HbCC (0.01%). There was a steady increase in the number of people who visited the hospitals for hemoglobin genotype determination throughout the years covered in this investigation, as the proportion of abnormal hemoglobin genotypes to the normal HbAA tremendously increased in the last four years (2010–2013). This suggests the possibility of many other residents in the capital city of Ondo state carrying the abnormal forms of hemoglobin genotype, and calling for more efforts in the area of genetic counseling. The gene frequencies of A, S, and C were 0.91, 0.08 and 0.01, respectively. The prevalence of HbAA in this study has been the highest reported in the Southwest and Nigeria as a whole.