Detection of Helicobacter pylori vacA, cagA and iceA1 virulence genes associated with gastric diseases in Egyptian patients
Background: Helicobactor pylori (H. pylori) virulence markers would be useful to predict peptic ulcer disease (PUD) or gastric cancer.
Aim: In Egypt, since inadequate data are present regarding H. pylori virulence–related genes in different age group patients with gastro-duodenal diseases, it becomes crucial to study the clinical status of cagA, vacA and iceA1 genotypes of H. pylori strains recovered from patients with dyspepsia.
Subjects and methods: The study included 113 dyspeptic patients who were exposed to upper gastrointestinal endoscopic examination. Four antral biopsies were obtained from each patient for the analysis of H. pylori infection by rapid urease test and detection of 16S rRNA.
Results: Sixty (53.1%) patients were confirmed to be infected with H. pylori. Upon endoscopy, gastritis was revealed in 27 patients (45%) and10 patients (16.7%) had PUD. Of the 60 H. pylori strains, 39 (65%) had at least one virulence gene. Six different genotypic forms were recognized; vacA (9/60), iceA1 (1/60), vacA/cagA (7/60), vacA/iceA1 (13/60), vacA/cagA/iceA1 (8/60) only one of cagA/iceA type and we could not detect cagA. The overall vacA, iceA1and cagA genes identified were 61.6%, 38.8%, 26.6% respectively, by PCR-based molecular testing. The vacA gene status was highly significant related to gastritis patient (P 0.036). The vacA s1m1 and s2m2 alleles were significantly found in 50% of H. pylori infected patients with PUD and with gastritis 57.1% respectively (P 0.01).
Conclusion: In conclusion, the main genotype combinations in the studied Egyptian patients were; vacAs2m2/iceA1, vacAs1m1/cagA, mostly associated with gastritis, and vacAs1/cagA/icA, mainly in PUD. The less virulent (s2, s2m2) H. pylori genotypes were found in patients aged over 43 years.