Role of toll like receptors in bacterial and viral diseases – A systemic approach
Background: Toll like receptors are key-receptors of the innate immune system, but their role against bacterial and viral infections are yet to be understood.
Aim: The present study is aimed to investigate the diversity and frequency distribution of 10 TLR genes among typhoid fever and HIV+ patients. In this study, 44 samples were taken from typhoid patients and 55 samples from HIV+ patients.
Patients and methods: Widal test positive samples (>1:80) in case of typhoid and the percentage of CD4+ count in case of HIV+ patient were considered for the PCR-SSP analysis.
Results: We found that the frequencies of TLR1 and TLR6 were highest in typhoid patients, whereas the frequencies of TLR8 and TLR9 displayed higher among HIV+ patients. Chi-square values were significant for TLR8 and TLR10 in the case of typhoid patients, whereas in HIV patients significant values were considered for TLR2, TLR4, TLR8 and TLR9 respectively. The odds ratio calculated highest for TLR1 and TLR6 among typhoid patients. TLR4 and TLR9 calculated were highest odd for HIV+ patients. A door line association of TLRs with the disease was found when the relative risk was calculated for TLR2 (1.72), TLR3 (1.21) and TLR10 (1.98) in bacterial infection, whereas in case of viral infection relative risk was calculated for TLR4 (1.62), TLR8 (1.18) and in TLR9 (1.16).
Conclusion: This study reports the frequency distribution and association of human TLR genes with the bacterial and viral infection in the North Bengal region of India for the first time. It also signified the gene- disease- environment association study in case of infectious diseases and also the risk factors of bacterial and viral infections in this region. It also depicts the role of TLRs in the recognition of the pathogens.