Impact of PAI-1 4G/5G and C > G polymorphisms in acute ST elevation myocardial infarction and stable angina patients: A single center Egyptian study
Background: Many genetic factors, including polymorphisms in the genes regulating blood coagulation and fibrinolysis have been proposed as risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD). PAI-1 is the chief inhibitor of tissue plasminogen activator and urokinase plasminogen activator. PAI-1 has a crucial role in regulation of fibrinolysis.
Aim of the study: Is to investigate the association between Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) 4G/5G, PAI-1C/G polymorphisms and CAD. In addition, studying the relation of these polymorphisms to the level of active PAI-1 in Egyptian patients presenting to a single tertiary center in Cairo.
Subjects and methods: One hundred and forty-four patients were included in this study: 42 STEMI (ST elevation myocardial infarction) patients, 63 stable angina patients, and 39 as a control group. Detection of PAI-1 4G/5G and C > G polymorphisms was done using allele specific polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) respectively. Plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity was detected using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Results: In the studied CAD patients, PAI-14G/5G polymorphism showed 31.7%, and 68.3% for 5G/5G, and (4G/5G + 4G/4G) respectively; however for the control group, 5G/5G, and (4G/5G + 4G/4G) were detected in 21.6%, and 78.4% respectively (p value 0.59). The genotypic frequencies for PAI-1C/G in CAD patients accounted for 27% (CC), 73% (CG + GG); while in the control group these frequencies were 35.3%, and 64.7% respectively (p value 1.43).
Conclusion: No significant association between PAI-1 4G/5G and C > G polymorphisms and the risk of coronary artery disease or the activity level of PAI-1 among the studied Egyptian population sample. However, STEMI patients showed significant presence of combined mutant allele of both genes more frequently.
Keywords: Coronary artery disease, Plasminogen activator inhibitor, Genetic polymorphism, 4G/5G, C>G