Study of congenital malformations in infants and children in Menoufia governorate, Egypt
Congenital anomalies is one of the main causes of physical disabilities, stillbirths and neonatal deaths. The exact etiology of most congenital anomalies is unidentified but genetic and environmental causes are accused.
We aimed to study congenital anomalies regarding frequency, clinical pattern and associated risk factors.
A cross-sectional study was conducted on 100 infants and children with congenital anomalies attended to our pediatric genetic clinic at Menoufia University Hospital from October 2016 to October 2017. Detailed history taking, clinical examination and investigations including cytogenetic study were done.
Out of 100 cases, 51% have isolated anomalies and 49% have multiple anomalies, 14.2% had chromosomal abnormalities, 44.8% were diagnosed as genetic syndromes, while we did not reach the final diagnosis in 40.8% of cases. According to the ICD-10 classification of congenital anomalies musculoskeletal system anomalies were the most common in 48% of cases, followed by anomalies of the eye, ear, face and neck in 44% of cases. Anomalies of nervous system, circulatory system, genital organs, urinary system, chromosomal abnormalities, cleft lip and cleft palate occur in 26%, 22%, 18%, 12%, 7% and 6% of cases respectively.
Gastrointestinal anomalies in only 4% of cases taking into account that one case may have more than one affected system. According to the guidelines for case classification for the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 2003, 51% had major anomalies, 18% had minor anomalies while 31% had both. Some cases had undergone immediate intervention e.g. meningomyelocele, encephalocele, omphalocele and gastroschisis. While other cases required later intervention e.g. hypospadius, cleft palate and cleft lip. Male gender, consanguineous marriage and lack of maternal folic acid supplementations were found in 54%, 43% and 59% of cases respectively, constituted the main risk factors.
Subjects and methods: proper physical examination, cytogenetic and molecular studies are important for the early intervention so prevention will be possible.
Keywords: Anomalies, Chromosomal, Congenital, Dysmorphic, Syndrome, Diagnosis