Seroprevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, and Syphilis among Blood Donors at Jigjiga Blood Bank, Eastern Ethiopia
Background: Transfusion-transmissible infectious agents such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and Syphilis are among the greatest threats to blood safety for recipients. They are also the leading causes of death and chronic and life-threatening abnormalities.
Methods: A retrospective analysis of consecutive blood donors’ records covering the period between January 2010 and December 2014 was conducted to analyze for seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis among blood donors aged 17-65 years. The association of these infections with age group, blood group, their co-infection rate and year trends were analyzed. Linear regression analysis was used to determine trends of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis infections. Sterile venous anti-coagulated blood was collected from the donors and analyzed using highly sensitive and specific kits.
Result: From the total of 6827 consecutive blood donors, 963(14.1%) had serological evidence of infection with at least one pathogen and 73(1.07%) had multiple infections. The overall seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis was 3.16%, 9.48%, 0.73% and 0.73% respectively. Among those with multiple infections, the most common combinations were HIV-HBV 41/73(56.2%). Blood group “O positive” was the most common with 51.62% followed by “A positive”. Moreover, significantly declining trends of HIV, HCV and syphilis seropositivity were observed over the study period.
Conclusion: A substantial percentage of the blood donors harbour HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis infections. Strict selection of blood donors and comprehensive screening of donors’ blood using standard methods are highly recommended to ensure the safety of blood for recipients.
Keywords: HIV, HBsAg, HCV, Syphilis, Infectious pathogens, Blood donors, Jigjiga