Seroepidemiology study of cytomegalovirus and rubella among pregnant women at St. Paul’s Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Background: Maternal cytomegalovirus (CMV) and rubella infections have adverse neonatal outcomes. Both CMV and rubella are more widespread in developing countries and in communities with lower socioeconomic status. The aim of this study was to investigate sero-prevalence of CMV and rubella infection and associated possible risk factors.
Method: Using cross sectional study design a total of 200 pregnant women were consecutively recruited starting from June and July 2014. Blood samples were collected, and structured questions were used to gather socio-demographic and risk factor related data. ELISA was used to detect CMV (IgG, IgM) and rubella IgM. SPSS version 20 was used to analyze the data, and regression was also performed.
Results: Out of 200 pregnant women, 88.5%, 30(15.5%) and 4(2.0%) were CMV-IgG, CMV- IgM, and rubella-IgM positive, respectively. Women who were immune/positive only for IgG were 73.5%. The second group was those with primary infection [IgG (+) plus IgM (+)] and this consisted of 15.0% participants. Eleven percent of the participants were at high risk for primary infection during their pregnancy. One pregnant woman was identified as having a recent primary infection. In this study, no statistically significant association was detected between CMV infection with idependent factors (p-value>0.05).
Conclusion: In addition to detection of high prevalence of CMV, detecting recent infection of rubella worsens the outcome of the disease. Rubella vaccine should be taken into consideration after large scale surveillance. However, screening of all pregnant women for CMV infection may not be cost-effective as in the countries with high seropositivity.
Keywords: Cytomegalovirus, Human cytomegalovirus, Rubella, Seroprevalence, Pregnancy