Dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome among type 2 diabetes patients in Gaza Strip, Palestine
Background: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is raising worldwide; however, the role of diet in the origin of metabolic syndrome is not understood well. This study identifies major dietary patterns among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with and without metabolic syndrome; and its association with metabolic syndrome components in Gaza Strip, Palestine.
Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted among 1200 previously diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (both genders, aged 20 - 64 years) patients receiving care in primary healthcare centers in Gaza Strip, Palestine. Metabolic syndrome was defined based on the International Diabetes Federation criteria; dietary patterns were evaluated using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 20.
Results: Two major dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis: Asian-like pattern and sweet-soft drinks-snacks pattern. After adjustment for confounding variables, patients in the highest tertile of the Asian-like pattern characterized by a high intake of whole grains, potatoes, beans, legumes, vegetables, tomatoes and fruithad a lower odds for (Metabolic syndrome, central obesity, high triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol and high blood pressure), (OR 0.766 CI 95% (.642-.914)), (OR 0.797 CI 95% (.652-.974)), (OR 0.791 CI 95% (.687-.911)), (OR 0.853 CI 95% (.743-.978)) and (OR 0.815 CI 95% (.682-.973)) respectively, (P value < 0.05 for all). No significant association was found between the sweet-soft drinks-snacks pattern with metabolic syndrome and its components.
Conclusion: The Asian-like pattern may be associated with a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components among type 2 diabetes patients.
Keywords: Dietary patterns, Factor analysis, Metabolic syndrome, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, Palestine