Five years malaria trend analysis in Woreta Health Center, Northwest Ethiopia
Background: An estimated 68% of the Ethiopian population, living in 75% of the landmass, is at risk of contracting malaria at any time making it the leading public health problem. The temporal analysis of malaria data could be important to evaluate the performance of malaria prevention programmes. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the trend of malaria at Woreta Health Center (WHC) over a period of five years.
Methods: We analyzed the records of 8,057 presumptive malaria patients registered in 2012 to 2016. The following patient data were retrieved from laboratory registration logbook for analysis: sex, age, residence, blood film (BF) microscopy result, type of malaria parasite identified, year and month when the patients visited WHC. Logistic regression was employed to assess the association between potential associated factors and positive BF result; p < 0.05 was considered significant.
Results: Among the total presumptive individuals, 4447(55.2%) were females. The prevalence of malaria in each year ranged from 4.1% to 6.7%. The overall prevalence of malaria was 5.4% (95%CI: 4.9%-5.9%). The two most important species of malaria parasite identified were P. falciparum at 233(53.7%) and P. vivax at 184(42.4%). Relatively higher proportions of cases were documented in the months of November, December and June (11.1%, 8.1% and 7.2%, respectively). Patients who visited the health center in the month of December were >4 times more likely to be infected as compared with those who came to the health center in September [AOR: 4.2, 95%CI (2.374-7.560)]. Females were 1.3 times more likely to be infected than males, [AOR: 1.3, 95%CI (1.101-1.638)]. Similarly, patients in the age group above 15 were 1.9 times more likely to be infected than individuals < 5, [AOR: 1.9 95%CI (1.498-2.455), p value 0.000].
Conclusion: In the studied area, malaria remains a major public health challenge. Hence, interventions to decrease the impact of the disease have to be evaluated and strengthened.
Keywords: Malaria, trend analysis, Ethiopia