Variation of Urine Parameters among Diabetic Patients: A Cross- Sectional Study
BACKGROUND: Diabetic kidney disease is a common and severe microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). There are limited data regarding alteration of urine parameters other than proteinuria among DM patients.
METHODS: Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to May 2017 to assess alteration of urine parameters among DM patients at the University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. A Systematic random sampling technique was used to recruit adult (≥18 years) diabetic participants. Data were collected after ethical requirements had been fulfilled. The degree of association between variables was evaluated through bivariable and multivariable logistic regression models.
RESULTS: The majority (69.4%) of the study participants were type 2 DM patients. The prevalence of altered urine chemical parameters was 11.3% proteinuria, 4.5% ketonuria, 13.6% hematuria, 53.8% glucosuria, 24.9% leukocyturia and 1.7% positive for nitrite. Diastolic blood pressure and poor glycemic control were significantly associated with proteinuria. Male participants were 2.4 times more likely to have leukocyturia than female participants. The prevalence of abnormally increased microscopic findings was red blood cells 3.1%, white blood cells 12.5%, epithelial cells 27.5%, yeast cells 1.7%, bacteria 17.8%, casts 3.7% and crystals 29.2%.
CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of altered urine parameters among DM patients is found to be considerable. These increased prevalences of altered urine parameters are potential indicators for diabetic kidney disease.