Enteropathogens in Under-Five Children with Diarrhea in Health Facilities of Debre Berhan Town, North Shoa, Ethiopia
BACKGROUND: Diarrheal disease is a major cause of mortality and morbidity for under-five children in Ethiopia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the behavioral and socioeconomic risk factors, etiology, and drug susceptibility of bacteria isolated from under-five children with acute diarrhea who were treated at Debre Berhan Referral Hospital or Health Center in Ethiopia.
METHODS: A health facility based cross-sectional study design was used to investigate enteropathogens from 163 under-five children with acute diarrhea. After obtaining written consent from parents or guardians, data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Freshly passed stool samples were collected for microbiological tests for bacteria and parasites. The chi-square test was used for assessing the relationships of variables.
RESULTS: Enteropathogens were detected among 55.8% (91/163) participants. There was a 46%(75/163) bacterial culture positivity rate and a 9.8%(16/163) prevalence of parasites. The isolated enteropathogens were Escherchia coli, Klebsiella specie, Proteus species, Salmonella species, Shigella species, Enterobacter species, Giardia lamblia, Enteameba histolytica, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Hymnoleps nana. Level of antimicrobial resistance of bacterial isolates ranged from 0 to 87.2%. Poor hand washing and poor cleaning of feeding utensils showed significant association with the presence of enteropathogens.
CONCLUSION: Bacterial enteropathogens with drug resistance were observed in this study. Continuous health education and promotion about diarrheal disease for mothers/caretakers and regular surveillance of entropathogenes are recommended to reduce under-five mortality.