Correlation between biofilm formation and carbapenem resistance among clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae
Background: Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative enteric bacterium that causes nosocomial infections; this bacterium has survived from harsh condition using biofilm formation in hospital equipment and cause severe infection. In the other hand, the emergence and extension of carbapenem resistance burden among K. pneumonia producing biofilm is the current concern of public health services. There are controversial findings about this subject. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between biofilm formation and resistance to carbapenem among clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae.
Methods: A total of 160 K. pneumoniae isolates were collected from various infections of hospitalized patients. The Carba NP test and molecular methods were used for detection of carbapenem resistance isolates of K. pneumonia. Subsequently, the ability for biofilm production was performed from all isolates. Finally, Correlation of biofilm formation among carbapenem resistant isolates was calculated using χ2 and Fisher’s exact tests.
Results: Among K. pneumoniae isolates 42.5% have carbapenemase activity by Carba NP test, while carbapenemase genes were detected in 35.6% of isolates in amplification assay. Moreover, there are 52.5% (n= 84) of all isolates were formed a strong biofilm, while 38.1% (n= 61) and 9.3% (n= 15) of isolates were middle and weak biofilm producer, respectively. Among carbapenem resistant cases (n= 68), there are 77.9% (n= 53) and 22% (n= 15) of isolates were reported as strong and middle biofilm producer, respectively. We see a significant correlation was seen between biofilm formation ability and carbapenem resistant isolates (p-value < 0.00001).
Conclusion: The increase of carbapenem resistance burden in biofilm producing isolates of K. pneumoniae is considered as serious alert and the basic measures to combat this phenomenon is imperative.