Non-Motor Symptoms and Associated Factors in Parkinson’s Disease Patients in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study

  • Biniyam A. Ayele
  • Yared Zenebe Zewde
  • Abenet Tafesse
  • Amir Sultan
  • Joseph H. Friedman
  • James H. Bower
Keywords: Non-motor symptoms; Parkinson’s disease; young onset PD; Ethiopia

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Non-motor symptoms (NMSs) of Parkinson’s disease (PD) were often overlooked and less studied. Little is known about NMSs in Ethiopia. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of NMSs and associated factors.
METHODS: A multi-center cross-sectional observational study was conducted. NMS questionnaire was used to screen for the NMSs. Both descriptive and analytical statistics were used to analyze the data.
RESULTS: Total of 123 PD patients with median of 4 years were investigated. The mean age of PD patients was 62.9 years. The mean age of PD onset was 58.3 years. In 23.6% the age of onset was below age 50. Males accounted 72.4%. Majority of the patients were on Levodopa alone and 31.7% were on levodopa plus trihexyphenidyl. Longer duration of illness was associated with frequent occurrence of NMSs. Constipation was the commonest NMS (78%), followed by urinary urgency (67.5%) and nocturia (63.4%). An unexplained pain was reported by 45.5%, cognitive impairment (45.5%), and sleep disturbance was reported by 45.5% of the study participants. Neurophysciatric symptoms were reported by small proportion of the patients. Lower monthly earning was associated with swallowing problem, unexplained weight change, and lighheadness.
CONCLUSION: The prevalence of NMS was high among PD patients in Ethiopia. Constipation was the commonest NMS. Longer duration of illness was associated with frequent occurrence of NMSs. Lower monthly earning was associated with swallowing problem, unexplained weight change, and lighheadness.

Published
2021-07-01
Section
Articles

Journal Identifiers


eISSN: 1029-1857
print ISSN: 1029-1857