Neuroimaging Features and Associated Factors in Multiple Sclerosis Patients: A Perspective from a Private Care Center in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
BACKGROUND፡ Brain and spine magnetic resonance image (MRI) have an invaluable importance in diagnosing multiple sclerosis (MS) in low prevalence countries such as Ethiopia. The objective of our study was to characterize the neuroimaging features and associated factors in Multiple sclerosis patients in
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
METHOD: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in 30 multiple sclerosis patients at Yehuleshet Specialty Clinic, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Both descriptive and analytical statistics were used to analyze the data.
RESULTS: We have enrolled 30 patients with confirmed multiple sclerosis and clinically isolate syndrome. The mean age was 34.7 years (1SD=8.9). Female accounted 86.7%. The mean duration of illness was 3.4 years (1SD=3.1) (range: 1 – 11 years). Relapsing and remitting variant was the commonest sub type (66.7%). Alcohol use and head injury were the commonest identified risk factors reported by the patients. Classical radiological features of MS such as white matter lesions involving juxtacortical, U-fiber, corpus callosum (CC), and Dawson’s finger projections pattern were observed in 46.7%, 23.3%, 70%, and 40% respectively. Cervical and thoracic cords were affected in 40% and 6.7% respectively. Global cortical and CC atrophy was observed in 16.7% and 6.7% respectively. Advanced age was associated with lesions of corpus callosum when adjusted for duration of illness and history of head injury (AOR 1.13, 95% CI 1.01-1.28, p=0.04).
CONCLUSION: Typical neuroimaging features of MS were prevalent among Ethiopian MS patients. Age was an independent predictor of lesions involving corpus callosum. Global cortical atrophy was common among Ethiopian MS patients.