Postoperative Nosocomial Infections and Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern of Bacteria Isolates among Patients Admitted at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahirdar, Ethiopia
AbstractBackground: Nosocomial infection constitutes a major public health problem worldwide. Increasing antibiotic resistance of pathogens associated with nosocomial infections also becomes a major therapeutic challenge for physicians. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify post operative bacterial infections and determine their current antimicrobial resistance to commonly prescribed drugs.
Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on patients under gone operation from October 2010 to January 2011 and followed for development of clinical signs and symptoms of surgical site and blood stream infection until the time of discharge. Structured questionnaire was used to collect socio demographic characteristics. Wound swab and venous blood samples were collected and processed for bacterial isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility testing following standard bacteriological techniques.
Results: Out of 294 patients who had clean and clean-contaminated operation, 10.9% were confirmed of bacterial nosocomial infections. The rate of nosocomial infections among clean and clean-contaminated operations was 3.3% and 12.8% respectively. Nosocomial surgical site and blood stream infection rate was 10.2% and 2.4% correspondingly. A total of 42 bacterial pathogens were identified of which S. aureus was the leading isolates accounting 26.2% followed by E. coli and Coagulase negative Staphylococcus species each 21.4%. Nearly 100% of Gram positive and 95.5% of Gram negative bacterial isolates showed resistance against two or more antimicrobial drugs.
Conclusions: Multiple drug resistance of isolates to antimicrobials was alarmingly high so that any empirical prophylaxis and treatment needs careful selection of effective drugs. To minimize such infections, adherence of strict aseptic surgical procedures and proper management of wounds is required.