Serum periostin level in children with bronchial asthma
Background: Periostin is a systemic inflammatory biomarker secreted in large quantities from lung fibroblasts under stimulation by interleukin (IL) -13 and IL-4 activity. Several studies also suggested a relation between serum periostin level and eosinophilic inflammation in asthma. Thus, we sought to determine serum periostin level in children with bronchial asthma in correlation with asthma severity and pulmonary function tests.
Methods: This controlled cross-sectional study was conducted on 50 children with bronchial asthma and 30 age-matched healthy controls who were recruited from the Children’s Hospital, Aswan University, during the period from May 2018 to April 2019. The enrolled patients were subjected to clinical evaluation, pulmonary function testing, complete blood counting, total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) estimation, and periostin level measurement by ELISA at the time of asthma exacerbation.
Results: Asthmatic cases had significantly higher serum levels of periostin (113.2 ± 56.17 ng/ml) and total IgE (408.86 ± 287.3 IU/ml) in comparison to controls (52.43 ±11.15 ng/ml) and (44.8 ±21.22 IU/ml), respectively; p <0.001. Periostin and total IgE levels were higher in severe than in mild and moderate, and in uncontrolled than well-controlled asthma cases (p <0.001). Serum periostin levels correlated positively with the total IgE, asthma severity, asthma control, and eosinophil count in the asthmatic patients, and negatively with the neutrophil count and all spirometry parameters. Serum periostin had 100 % specificity and 72 % sensitivity at a cut-off level >75 ng/ml in the diagnosis of bronchial asthma .
Conclusion: Serum periostin could be a useful biomarker in diagnosing bronchial asthma in association with asthma severity.