Genesis and classification of soils along a toposequence in the teaching and research farm of Taraba State University, Jalingo, Nigeria
Investigations were made to reflect the genesis and classification of soils along a toposequence in the Teaching and Research farm of Taraba State University. The topographic map of the farm was developed in the ArcGIS 10.8 environment and a profile graph plotted out. One profile pit was sunk in each elevation range to represent soils in the summit, shoulder, back slope, foot slope and toe slope positions using the free survey approach. The soils were deep, well drained and generally described as A, B, C soils with extensive B horizons that showed clear illuviation of clay and sesquioxides. The soils were brown (7.5YR 3/4), dark brown (10YR 3/3) and dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/6) in the surface and dominated by sand with bulk density values that exceeded 1.5 Mg/m3. Soil pH values were moderately acid to neutral while organic C and exchangeable bases were low in all but foot slope position where high values of organic carbon were obtained in the surface soils. The content of dithionite and oxalate Fe and Al, and their derivatives indicate intense weathering condition of the soils as well as their combined movement with clay to endopedons. However, moderately high CEC and the likely presence of montmorillonite (via CECE/clay) are indications that the soils had good potentials for agriculture. Among the soil forming processes in the area were mineralization, eluviation-illuviation as well as ferritization. The soils were classified as Typic Rhodustults (Pretic Acrisols), Arenic Haplustults (Chromic Acrisols) and Paleustults (Haplic Acrisols).
Keywords: pedogenesis, sesquioxides, classification, Basement Complex