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Slum upgrading in developing countries: lessons from Ghana and Kenya

Esther Y. Danso-Wiredu
Emmanuel Midheme


The proliferation of slums in many cities of the developing countries has been widely discussed in the literature as a great concern to most countries. The complexities of the slum problem make upgrading difficult. To help reduce such complexities, there have been studies focussed on measures put in place by various governments and organisations to help find solutions to the problem. The article analyses some slum upgrading projects discussed in the literature which are deemed to have been successful. The paper identifies common elements in the upgrading programmes in the literature. It assesses two slum upgrading projects from Ghana and Kenya to determine how the elements were factored into the projects’ implementation. The article concludes that stakeholders involved in slum upgrading in Africa should consider the common elements identified to ensure sustainable slum upgrading on the continent.

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eISSN: 2821-8892
print ISSN: 0855-9414