Inequalities in Access to Water and Sanitation in Rural Settlements in Parts of Southwest Nigeria
Access to water, sanitation, and hygiene is a major human right necessary for achieving Sustainable Development Goals. The study examined inequalities in access to water and sanitation in rural settlements covering Apa, Ikoga, Ibeshe, Itori, Eruwa, and Lanlate in parts of Southwest Nigeria. Purposive and random sampling techniques were employed to select six settlements and administered 400 questionnaires to households respectively. Descriptive statistics, chi-square, and
factor analysis were employed for data analysis. The result shows that the majority of the households interviewed are adults with secondary school certificate. The major available water supply and sanitation facilities in the study area are boreholes and an open pit latrine. About 50.8% and 48.1% of the households gained access to improved water and sanitation respectively in the study area. Badagry and Ewekoro recorded the highest access for improved water and sanitation respectively. Only 8% of the households gained access to safe water supply in the study area. The sanitary condition in the study area is poor. The chi-square shows a significant relationship between the dependent variables (water sources/types of toilet facilities) and independent variable (marital status, age, and income) at p<0.01. Factor analysis explained 68.86% of the total variance
and extracted five components. The five factors revealed three major factors namely; demographic, environmental and water source as the main factors affecting household access to water and sanitation. The study is significant because it contributes to knowledge in the areas of WaSH and environmental sustainability. The study concluded that access to improved water and sanitation in Eruwa and Lanlate is poor. Sustainable rural water supply and sanitation policies that will
guarantee effective environmental sanitation, monitoring and provision of safe water supply and decent sanitation facilities were recommended. The study suggests that priority is given to Eruwa and Lanlate for intervention due to its weakest water and sanitation access.