Sodium sesquicarbonate (Akang) and limestone as catalysts for the synthesis of monoglycerides by glycerolysis of palm and palm kernel oils
Production of monoglycerides from palm and palm kernel oils were carried out using sodium sesquicarbonate (akang) and lime stone as catalysts.The results showed that the maximum monoglyceride formed is in the range of 49–57% of the fatty product for the limestone catalyst and 78 – 92% for the sodium sesquicarbonate catalyst at equilibrium stage of the reaction. The limestone catalyst substantially increases the initial rate of reaction without appreciably lowering the time required for attaining the equilibrium concentration of monoglyceride in the resulting reaction mixture compared to the sodium sesquicarbonate catalyst. Viscosity results showed that sodium sesquicarbonate increases the viscosity of the oils based – monoglycerides while limestone was found to decrease the viscosity rather. Solubility test showed that both monoglycerides were soluble in polar solvents and insoluble in the non polar solvent.
KEYWORDS: Sodium sesquicarbonate, limestone, monoglyceride, viscosity