Antibacterial and toxicological effects of leaf extracts of Eurphorbia heterophylla on some enteric bacteria
Aim: A study was carried out to determine the antibacterial activity of Euphorbia heterophylla crude extracts on four enteric bacterial organisms namely; Salmonella typhi, Shigella flexneri, E.coli and Proteus vulgaris.
Method: The clinical isolates of Salmonella typhi, Shigella flexneri, E.coli and Proteus vulgaris were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility test using agar diffusion technique.
Result: Methanolic and aqueous crude extract produced clear zones of inhibition at concentration ranging from 100 to 200mg/ml at 24 hours and as the time increased to 48hours and 72hours, the antibacterial activity decreased. Two thousand milligram per kilogram body weight of the crude extracts was administered to the mice orally, and single death accompanied each group of mice that were administered with methanolic crude extract of the leaf.
Conclusion: Euphorbia heterophylla crude extract could be a potential source of antimicrobial agent for the treatment of diseases associated with enteric organisms such as Salmonella typhi, Shigella flexneri, E.coli and Proteus vulgaris. Further studies should be directed towards isolation and characterization of the active compound in the crude extracts.
Keywords: Bioactive components; Antibacterial activity; Euphorbia heterophylla; Enteric bacteria; Toxicity