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OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between uterine placental location and fetal growth restriction and gestational hypertension.
MATERIALS AND METHOD: A prospective cross-sectional study done in the Department of Radiology of the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH), Calabar, within a 4-month period. The study involved a total of 100 singleton pregnant women between 20 to 40 weeks of gestation who were aged 20 to 39 years. Analysis of the data was done using the statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 20 Inc. Chicago, IL.
RESULTS: The frequency distribution of the placental locations were: anterior – 35%, postero-fundal – 36%, antero-fundal – 18% and posterior – 11%. The highest mean head circumference to abdominal circumference ratio (HC/AC) was seen in subjects with posterior placental location (1.03 ± 0.09), lowest mean estimated fetal weight (EFW) was seen in subjects with antero-fundal placental location (1.87 ± 0.92 kg) while the highest mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure were seen in subjects with postero-fundal placental location (113.89 ± 10.50 mmHg and 66.61 ± 7.07 mmHg) respectively. The lowest mean HC/AC was noted in subjects with anterior placental location (1.01 ± 0.08), the highest EFW was noted in subjects with postero-fundal placental location (2.26 ± 1.03 kg) while the lowest mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure were noted in subjects with posterior placental location (109.09 ± 5.39 mmHg and 61.82 ± 4.05 mmHg) respectively. There was no significant correlation between placental location and HC/AC, EFW, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.744, p = 0.567, p = 0.671, p = 0.936) respectively.
CONCLUSION: Placental location in the uterus has no relationship with intrauterine growth restriction and the development of gestational hypertension in the second half of singleton pregnancies.