Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activity of False Yam (Icacina oliviformis) Extracts on Microbes

  • R. Seidu Department of Biotechnology, University for Development Studies, Tamale
  • A. K. Quainoo Department of Biotechnology, University for Development Studies, Tamale
  • S. J. Cobbina Department of Environment and Sustainability, University for Development Studies, Tamale
  • L. Quansah Department of Biotechnology, University for Development Studies, Tamale
Keywords: False yam tuber;, False yam seed, Icacina oliviformis;, Phytochemical screening;, Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC);, Microorganisms;

Abstract

This study compares the phytochemicals and antimicrobial activity of Icacina oliviformis tuber and seed extracts on Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aerugino­sa, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. False yam tubers were washed and peeled and the mesocarp removed to obtain the seeds. Methanol was used to obtain tuber and seed extracts of the false yam, after they were pulverized. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of tannins, saponins, alkaloids and glycosides in both extracts but the proportion of tannins and alkaloids were relatively higher in false yam seed extract than tuber extract. Antimicrobial assay showed that both extracts had antimicrobial activity justifying its use in the treatment of diseases in Northern Ghana. False yam seed extract had a relatively higher antimicrobial activity than tuber extract. The least minimum inhibition concentration recorded was 1.56 mg/ ml for false yam seed on Gram-positive bacteria and Candida albicans. False yam seed extract exhibited a higher antimicrobial activity against the microorganisms than the tuber extract, this provides a cheaper source of antimicrobial agent to treat infectious diseases.

Keywords: False yam tuber, False yam seed, Icacina oliviformis, Phytochemical screening, Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC), Microorganisms

 

Published
2019-12-31
Section
Articles

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eISSN: 0855-1448