Serum C-reactive protein levels in pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease patients in southern Nigeria
Background: Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of hospitalization and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD). C- reactive protein (CRP) is a marker of cardiovascular disease and predictor of mortality in CKD patients. CKD patients with elevated CRP should be identified early with institution of measures to treat cardiovascular risk factors in order to reduce attendant mortality.
Aims: Determination of serum CRP levels in CKD patients and associated factors.
Methods: This was a case-control study involving 80 consecutive CKD patients and 40 control subjects without CKD. Data obtained from participants included demographics, body mass index (BMI), and aetiology of CKD. Serum CRP levels, albumin, creatinine and lipid profile were determined. Cases and controls were compared. P values <0.05 were taken as significant
Results: The mean age of the CKD subjects was 49.09±16.85 years. The median CRP value was significantly higher in the CKD group compared to controls (p=<0.001). Low, average and high cardiovascular event risk according to CRP values were present in 51(63.8%), 13(16.2%) and 16(20%) of the CKD patients respectively. Cardiovascular event risk was significantly higher in CKD subjects (p <0.001). Serum creatinine, BMI, triglyceride and atherogenic index of plasma correlated positively with CRP. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and albumin correlated negatively with CRP. Elevated serum CRP was significantly predicted by low eGFR and high BMI on multivariate analysis.
Conclusion: Chronic kidney disease patients have increased cardiovascular event risk. Interventions aimed at reducing weight and treating dyslipidaemia should be instituted early in order to reduce this risk.
Keywords: C-reactive protein, chronic kidney disease, Nigeria