Ghana Medical Journal

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Microalbuminuria, Other Markers of Nephropathy and Biochemical Derangements in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Relationships and Determinants

Ademola A. Idowu, Abiodun O. Ajose, Adeoye T. Adedeji, Adegbola O. Adegoke, Kayode A. Jimoh


Background: Microalbuminuria is an early indicator of Diabetic nephropathy and cerebrovascular disease.

Objective: To evaluate relationships between microalbuminuria and other predictors of morbidity and mortality in type 2 DM.

Methods: Fifty type 2 diabetic subjects were recruited each for three groups separated by disease durations. Thirty non-diabetic subjects were recruited to control each group. Urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) was estimated. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), serum creatinine, urea, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high- and low density lipoprotein (HDL, LDL) were measured.

Results: The diabetics with longest disease duration of >10 years were the oldest (65.86±1.71), had highest systolic BP (147.12±3.39mmHg) and least BMI (27.20±0.71Kg/m2); they had poorest lipid control (TC:5.54±0.26mmol/L),
though with the least TG (0.97±0.09mmol/L); they also had the most severe microalbuminuria (33.63±8.03g/L) and ACR (65.85±10.38mg/gm). Patients with diabetes of 5-10 years had the poorest glycaemic control:FPG- 7.82±0.47mmol/L; HbA1c-13.09±0.74%). Significant negative correlations exist between microalbuminuria,
HBA1c(r=-2.28, p=0.028) and serum creatinine(r=-2.11,p=0.042) in patients with 5-10 years disease; a positive correlation between the ACR and TC(r=1.00,p<0.01) in those with >10 years disease. In multivariate analysis, independent predictors of microalbuminuria were disease duration (OR 2.2, p< 0.001); HBA1c (OR 7.3, p=0.02); LDL/HDL ratio (OR 13.4, p< 0.001).

Conclusion: The severity and progression of albuminuria are associated with longer duration of diabetes and poor glycaemic control. Significant relationships exist between ACR and HBA1c, TC, HDL-C, TG, creatinine. Disease duration, ethnicity, HBA1c, TC, TG, HDL-C and LDL/HDL ratio are independent predictors of albuminuria.

Keywords: diabetes, microalbuminuria, albumin-to-creatinine ratio, dyslipidaemia, nephropathy, cardiovascular disease

Funding: None declared

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