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Ghana Medical Journal

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Frailty and mortality among older patients in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria

Lawrence A. Adebusoye, Eniola O. Cadmus, Mayowa O. Owolabi, Adesola Ogunniyi

Abstract


Background: This study determined the frailty status and its association with mortality among older patients.

Design: A prospective cohort design.

Setting: Study was conducted at the medical wards of University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Participants and study tools: Four hundred and fifty older patients (>60 years) were followed up from the day of admission to death or discharge. Information obtained includes socio-demographic characteristics and clinical frailty was assessed using the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA) scale. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out using SPSS version 21 at a p <0.05.

Results: Overall, frailty was identified in 285 (63.3%) respondents. Mortality was significantly higher among frail respondents (25.3%) than non-frail respondents (15.4%) p=0.028. Logistic regression analysis showed factors associated with frailty were: male sex (OR=1.946 [1.005–3.774], p=0.048), non-engagement in occupational activities
(OR=2.642 [1.394–5.008], p=0.003), multiple morbidities (OR=4.411 [1.944–10.006], p<0.0001), functional disability (OR=2.114 [1.029–4.343), p=0.042], malnutrition (OR=9.258 [1.029–83.301], p=0.047) and being underweight (OR=7.462 [1.499–37.037], p=0.014).

Conclusion: The prevalence of frailty among medical in-hospital older patients is very high and calls for its prompt identification and management to improve their survival.

Keywords: Frailty, Mortality, Older patients, in-hospital, Nigeria

Funding: The study was self-funded by the authors




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