THE METABOLIC SYNDROME AMONG PATIENTS WITH CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE IN ACCRA, GHANA

  • J Akpalu
  • A Akpalu
  • F Ofei
Keywords: Metabolic Syndrome, cardiovascular dis-ease, Syndrome X, Ghana

Abstract

Background: There is evidence linking the Metabolic Syndrome with an increased risk of developing cardio-vascular disease, previously thought to be rare in Af-rica but now a major public health concern.
Objectives: To determine the frequency of occurrence of the Metabolic Syndrome among patients presenting with cardiovascular disease at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Ghana.
Methods: This was a case-control study of 100 con-secutive cardiovascular disease patients and 100 age- and sex- matched controls who underwent an interview and physical examination. Anthropometric measure-ments and fasting blood samples for plasma glucose and lipids were taken. The National Cholesterol Educa-tion Programme: Adult Treatment Panel III criteria were used for the diagnosis of the Metabolic Syn-drome.
Results: The prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome among cases and controls was 54% and 18% respec-tively, with the prevalence increasing with advancing age. Hypertension and central obesity were the two components with the highest frequency among indi-viduals with Metabolic Syndrome. The Metabolic Syn-drome was associated with the development of cardio-vascular disease (OR = 5.35, 95% CI: 2.81 – 10.18, p= 0.0001), with the odds ratio increasing with the number of components present.
Conclusion: The Metabolic Syndrome is prevalent among cardiovascular disease patients attending the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, with a significant associa-tion between the number of components of the Meta-bolic Syndrome present and the probability of develop-ing a cardiovascular disease. A policy to institute rou-tine screening in clinical practice and provision of ap-propriate interventions for Metabolic Syndrome com-ponents among Ghanaian adults is needed.
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