Effect of powdered castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.) on some internal organs of albino rat
According to estimates, the contribution of cocoa, which is the Nigeria’s highest foreign exchange earner among all agricultural commodities, has dropped from 308,000 tonnes in the 70’s to an average of 215,000 tonnes in recent years. This, according to reports, resulted from climate failure, among other factors. In the light of this, this study examined awareness and effects of climate change on cocoa production in Ondo State, the Nigeria’s leading cocoa producing state. Specifically, the study decribed socio-‐economic characteristics of cocoa farmers in the study area, investigated the awareness and perceived effects of climate change on cocoa production by the farmers and identified the adaptation strategies practised by the farmers. Primary data obtained through a combination of purposive and random sampling techniques of 120 farming households from the six Local Government Areas noted for cocoa production in the state were used for the study. Descriptive statistics involving frequency distribution tables, mean, mode and percentages were used for the analysis. The results revealed that 80.8% of the respondents were aware of climate change. The general effects of climate change experienced by the farmers were excessive rainfall (23.3%), less rainfall (12.5%), irregular rainfall pattern (59.2%), delayed onset of rainfall (5.0%), high temperature (37.5%), drought (5.0%) and variation in sunshine hours (28.3%). The visible effects of climate failure on the farmer cocoa production were pest attack (35.8%), disease attack (44.2%), late ripening of cocoa pod (20.8%), reduced weight of cocoa bean (53.3%) and contaminated cocoa bean (45.0%). This is unfavourable to farmers and the Nigerian economy in general. Therefore, this study calls for dissemination of timely information on sound adaptation strategies to effects of climate change by agricultural development agencies and provision of training by relevant stakeholders to improve the technical knowledge and skills of the farmers on measures to mitigate effects of climate change on cocoa production.A study was carried out at the Toxicology laboratory of the Department of Crop and Environmental protection, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Ogbomoso, to determine the effects of powdered castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.Euphorbiaceae) on kidney, liver, spleen of albino rats. The rats were in five groups, which were replicated three (3) times. The castor oil seed was turned to powdery form using pestle and mortal. Four feed formulations were used; powdered castor oil seed and commercial rat feed mixed in ratio 1:1, 1:2, 1:5, 1:10 and ordinary commercial rat feed, which serves as the control.These formulations were given to four separate groups of rats for a period of three days. The behaviour of the rats was monitored over the three day period. The histology of the kidney, liver and spleen which was initially preserved in formalin was later analysed. Compared with the control the hemorrhagic and necrotic tissues in rats administered with ratio 1:10 and ratio 1:5 showed mild disruption. In ratio 1:2 fed group, hemorrhagic and necrotic tissues showed complete disruption while group fed with 1:1 were extensively disrupted. The results also relayed changes in the body weight and the spleen weight where significant highest, spleen weight were recorded for the rats fed with commercial feed (control) than the rats fed with the treated feeds. The rats fed with ratio 1:1 (treated feed) had the least spleen weight compared to the animals fed with treated feed of ratio 1:2 and 1:5 respectively. No significant difference was observed in the kidney fresh weight for all the treatments. Also, there is significant highest liver weight in rats fed with control feed when compared with rat fed with treated feed, followed least concentration ( 1:10 ) of the treated feed. The observation revealed that a powdered castor oil seed to commercial rat feed can be effectively used as rodenticide and it is clearly seen that the function of a powdered castor oil seed affected the internal organ tested.