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Purpose: To carry out economic evaluation of antibacterial usage for Ear, Nose and Throat infections in a tertiary health care facility in Nigeria. Methods: Antibacterial utilisation evaluation was carried out retrospectively over one year period by reviewing 122 case notes containing 182 prescriptions of patient with Ear Nose and Throat infections. Relevant data including demographics, diagnosis, prescribed drugs, dosages, were extracted and the associated costs analysed. Results: Highest prevalent rate of Ear, Nose and Throat infections occurred in children under 10 years of age (59.3%) with otitis media predominating (45.0%). Average antibacterial cost per case was ₦1971.37 (US$15.16). Penicillins were the most frequently prescribed (35.5%) at a cost of ₦89,468.00 (US$688.22) representing 24.9% of the total antibacterial cost. Cephalosporins were used at a rate of 12.1% with a percentage total antibacterial cost of 48.4% (₦173,554.00, US$1335.03). Conclusion: The average cost of antibacterial agents to patients studied is high. This call for prudent use of these agents which should be evidence based and closely monitored.
Keywords: Pharmacoeconomics, Antibacterial Therapy, Antibacterial Utilization Studies, Infectious diseases.