Role of leptin and adiponectin in gestational diabetes mellitus: a study in a North Indian tertiary care hospital
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) exposes women to a higher risk for development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in later years of life. Newborns of mothers with GDM are at increased risk for acute perinatal complications including hypoglycaemia, jaundice and being large for gestational age. One of the mechanisms underlying glucose metabolism in pregnancy are a group of substances, which includes leptin and adiponectin, produced mainly in the adipose tissue; in this paper we analyze the role of these mediators in women with GDM. This case control study was performed in 90 females (30 GDM patients and 60 control subjects without GDM) referred to a tertiary care hospital. Blood samples were analyzed for fasting blood glucose, leptin and adiponectin. Leptin and
Adiponectin were analyzed using ELISA technique. In our study, the levels of fasting blood glucose were statistically significantly higher (p=0.000) in gestational diabetes patients as compared to controls. There was statistically significant positive correlation between blood glucose and leptin (p = 0.000, r = 0.585). There was statistically significant negative correlation between blood glucose and adiponectin(p = 0.000, r = -0.661). An amplification of the low-grade inflammation already existing in normal pregnancy may lead to increase in leptin and decrease in adiponectin. These factors may play a role in development of gestational diabetes mellitus. Further studies are required for establishing them as a marker for gestational diabetes mellitus.
KEY WORDS: Gestational diabetes mellitus; Leptin; Adiponectin