Effect of ethanolic leave extract of phyllantus amarus on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats
Liver diseases associated with its function in detoxification of xenobiotics are one of the most common causes of death. Side effects of drugs treating liver diseases have marred their popularity. This work was therefore designed to investigate the ameliorating effect of ethanolic leaves extract of phyllantus amarus on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotocity in albino rats. Thirty six (36) rats were divided into 9 groups (n=4rats) labeled A to I. Group A (water control) was treated with 0.2ml of distil water, B(vehicle control) received 0.2ml of olive oil, C and D were orally treated with 150 and 300mg/kgBW ethanolic leaves extract of P. amarus only, dissolved in olive oil for 14day respectively, 120mg/kgBW of (CCl4) was administered to rats in groups E F,G,H and I while groups F and G , H and I orally received 150 and 300mg/kgBW of P. amarus leaves extract dissolved in olive oil for 7 and 14days respectively. The rats were sacrificed on days 7 and 14, blood samples were collected into heparinized sample bottles for biochemical investigation of aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphate (ALP) activities, and total protein (TP), albumin (ALB) and total bilirubin (T.BIL) levels in plasma. Qualitative phytochemical screening of P.amarus was also carried out. Result from this work revealed significant increase (p<0.05) in plasma activities of AST, ALT, ALP and T.Bil level while that of TP and ALB significantly decreased (p<0.05) when group A was compared to group E. Non significant differences (p>0.05) were observed in all the parameters when group B was compared to groups C and D. All the parameters in a time and dose dependent manner, significantly decrease (p<0.05) except for TP and ALB levels which increased significantly (p<0.05) for all the extract treated groups. All the other parameters showed non significant difference (p>0.05) except for AST and ALP activities that were significantly increased when group A was compared to I. Result of the phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, cardenolides, steroids, tannins, carbohydrate and anthraquinones. Thus, ethanolic leaves extract of phyllantus amarus ameliorated the damage induced by CCl4 on the liver.