Effect of ethanolic leaves extract of phyllantus amarus on cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats
Cisplatin is a potent front-line antitumor drug characterized by dose-limiting nephrotoxicity resulting to withdrawal from treatment by patient. This research was therefore designed to investigate the mitigating effect of ethanolic leave extract of phyllantus amarus on cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats. Thirty six (36) rats were divided into 9 groups (n=4rats) labeled A to I with group A (water control) treated with 0.2ml of distil water, B(vehicle control) administered 0.2ml of olive oil, C and D were orally treated with 150 and 300mg/kgBW leave extract of P. amarus only dissolved in olive oil for 14day respectively, 0.7ml of cisplatin was administered to rats in group E while groups F and G , H and I orally received 150 and 300mg/kgBW leave extract of P. amarus dissolved in olive oil for 7 and 14days respectively after the administration of cisplatin to the rats. The rats were sacrificed on days 7 and 14, blood samples were collected into heparinized sample bottles for biochemical investigation of sodium ion (Na+), potassium ion (K+), Chloride ion (Cl-), bicarbonate ion (HCO3-), creatinine and urea levels. Qualitative phytochemical screening of P.amarus was also carried out. The result revealed significant decrease (p<0.05) in plasma concentrations of K+, Cl- , creatinine and urea in groups F,G, H and I when compared to negative control(E) value and significant increase (p<0.05) in plasma concentrations of Na+ and HCO3- when compared to negative control value. Group H for all the parameters under consideration showed a non significant difference (p>0.05) (almost close to oil control value) when compared to group A value, indicating restoration to normal value. The result of phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, cardenolides, steroids, tannins, carbohydrate and anthraquinones. Conclusively, ethanolic leave extract of P. amarus demonstrated mitigating effect of cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in albino wistar rats.
Keywords: Phyllanthus amarus, nephrotoxicity, sodium ion (Na+), potassium ion (K+), Chloride ion (Cl-), bicarbonate ion (HCO3-), creatinine and urea