Assessment of Heavy Metals Level of River Kaduna at Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria
River Kaduna which serves as source of water for farming, domestic and industrial uses suffers enormous pollution as a result of industrial activities and other anthropogenic sources of contamination. The study determines the concentration of some selected heavy metal of the surface waters of River Kaduna, examines the pollution status and the implications of the heavy metal pollution on human health and the environment. The water Samples were collected using Grab method along the River Kaduna at five points – Bypass, Barnawa, Down quarters, Kakuri – Makera drains and Kudendan. Six samples during the rainy season and another during the dry season. The samples were taken to the laboratory and analyzed for chromium, Arsenic, Iron, copper, Berium, Aluminium, Cadmium, Cyanide and zinc using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The results obtained from the analysis were compared with the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended standards in order to ascertain the magnitude of pollution and the quality of the water. The concentrations of the metals were observed to be higher than WHO acceptable limits. This revealed that the river have become contaminated by heavy metals discharged into the river especially from the industries and municipal wastes and may cause serious ecological and health hazards. The paper recommends that there should be proper monitoring of effluents, there is the need for mass education of people on the impact of indiscriminate waste discharge on the water quality, and a regular schedule for sampling tributary streams and the main river Kaduna should be established.
Keywords: Heavy metals, Pollution, Hazard, Environment, Industrial Wastes and Effluents.