Physicochemical and microbiological examination of hand-dug wells, boreholes and public water sources in selected areas of Ibadan, Nigeria
This study examined some physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of some water sources and evaluates their health implications in selected areas of Ibadan, Nigeria. Forty (40) water samples were collected into 1-litre plastic kegs from hand-dug wells, boreholes and public water points between June 12 and July 11, 2014. Samples were analysed for physical, chemical and microbial parameters using standard procedures. Well-structured questionnaires were used to elicit information on sanitation conditions in the areas. Electrical conductivity in many of the sampled water were higher than the recommended limit, while TDS were within the desirable limit of 200 mg/l except for the borehole at Ita-Baale Borehole (IB) and hand dug well at Oke-Aare (OAH). Microbial assessment of water samples in most areas confirmed the presence of vibrio species due to faecal pollution. Bacterial isolates identified in some of the water samples were Enterobacter cloaca, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomaonas fluorescens and Salmonella spp. The study revealed that sanitary facilities including toilets and improved latrines are lacking in many areas. Hand dug wells had the highest frequency of occurrence pollutants and bacteria due to their close proximity to pit latrines. The study concluded that residents in the study area are exposed to polluted water sources, which pose serious threat their health. This study added to the existing data on the inadequacy of sanitation in urban centres in the country hence the need for increased effort in the provision of more cleaner and well protected water sources such boreholes and piped-borne water.
Keywords: Hygiene, microbial contamination, sanitation, urban slums, water quality, health