Effect of fermentation and malting on some cereal weaning foods enriched with African locust beans
Effect of fermentation and malting on some cereal weaning foods enriched with African locust beans were carried out. Cereals (wheat and millet) were malted for the period of 144 hours and further fermented for 48 hours by natural fermentation. The millet, wheat and locust bean flours were mixed together in the ratio 70:70:40 (w/w) to produce fortified fermented-malted food .The same ratio were used in the formulation of unmalted /unfermented food and fortified products. Microbial analysis of the prepared foods were carried out using pour plate method. Physicochemical, proximate analysis were carried out using standard procedures. Nine (9) points hedonic scale were used for the sensory evaluation on the products .Bacteria such as Lactobacillus sp, Bacillus sp, Clostridium sp, Leuconostoc sp, Staphylococcus sp, Streptococcus sp, E.coli, Salmonella sp and fungal isolates include Aspergillu ssp, Saccharomyces sp, Candida sp, Penicillium sp, Mucor and Rhizopus sp were isolated from the fermented grains. Staphylococcus sp, E.coli, Salmonella sp and some Moulds were isolated after 24 hours of fermentation and malting of the grains. The pH of 3.89 in millet and 4.04 in wheat were observed during malting and fermentation processes. Total titratable acidity (TTA) of malted/fermented millet was 2.46% and wheat had 2.31% TTA. Percentage crude protein increased from 3.33% in malted/fermented blend (sample A) to 6.3% while unmalted/unfermented (sample B) and fortified product (sample C) had decrease in % crude protein. Percentage fat content decreased from 6.17% in sample A to 5.9%. The % crude carbohydrate content decrease from 80.43 in sample A to 80.15 but higher values were obtained in sample B with sample C having 80.35%.Percentage moisture and ash content decreased after malting and fermentation in sample A and B except in sample C. The mean scores of sensory evaluation revealed that the formulated malted/fermented and fortified foods were liked very much compared to the unmalted/unfermented foods which are moderately and slightly liked.
Keywords: Fermentation, bacteria, malting, cereal weaning foods, moulds