Potential of phytoremediation using Scirpus validus for domestic waste open dumping leachate
Currently in Malaysia there are only few sanitary landfills available for domestic waste disposal and most of them are located in Johore, Selangor and Kuala Lumpur. However, to date, there is no sanitary landfill in the state of Kelantan. All the twelve (12) rubbish disposal facilities in Kelantan are open dumping without any treatment. Leachate water was created by decomposition of organic waste flow out and polluted the surface water bodies, soil, ground water and air (smell). Phytoremediation treatment can overcome the water, groundwater, soil and air pollutions from rubbish disposal by using any significant plant either using trees or grassland. The mechanisms such rhizofiltration, phytoextraction, phytostabilization, phytovolatilization and phtodegradation are discussed. This study utilized Scirpus validus, a grass-like plant from Cyperaceae family to treat leachate from open dumping site. It is a fresh water plant that can be found at wetland, shallow water, lake side and wet meadows. The physicochemical parameter is used as an indicator to indicate the effectiveness of Scirpus validus in reducing the concentrations (%) of COD, BOD5 and AN. This experiment is conducted only for 15 days due to time constrains. The results showed that, 11.20% of removing efficiency for COD, 30.90% for BOD5 and 8.70% for AN. It was believed the removal rate will increase as the treatment time increases. So, it can be concluded that, Scirpus validus has quite substantial potential to be used for open dumping site leachate treatment especially at tertiary treatment or polishing level.
Keywords: Scirpus validus, phytoremediation, leachate, domestic waste, open dumping, effectiveness