Health risk assessment model for lead contaminated soil in Bagega Community, Nigeria
The study developed health risk assessment model for lead contaminated soil in Bagega community using United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and Canadian Standards Association (CAS) standard procedures. Questionnaires were used to investigate the background causes and exposure pathways of lead contaminated soil. Soil samples were collected at five different sites and cancer health risk values were estimated using equations proposed by US EPA. The results show that 84.0 % of the respondents agreed that the causes of lead poisoning in the study area were due to the activities of artisanal gold miners. The major exposure pathways to lead contaminated soil are ingestion, dermal contact and inhalation while the soil ingestion generates high cancer risk, dermal contact generates low cancer risk and that of inhalation was insignificant when compared with 1.00E-06 (mg/kg/day) WHO cancer risk standard. The mean cancer health risk value for combined exposure pathway is ranged from 1.49E-03 mg/kg/day to 5.99E-03 mg/kg/day. The study established that lead contaminated soil posed cancer health risk to the people of the study area.