Human Health Risk Assessment of PAHs in Fish and Shellfish from Amariaria Community, Bonny River, Nigeria
The concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Fish (Mullet fish-Mugil cephalus) and Shellfish (Tiger prawn-Penaeus Monodon and crab-Uca tangeri) samples from fishing areas in Amariaria Community, downstream of Bonny River, Southern Nigeria, were assessed to determine possible human health risk associated with consumption. Mean levels (mg/kg) of total PAHs ranged from 0.059 to 0.126 in fish, 0.015 to 0.106 in prawn and 0.057 to 0.063 in crab. A considerable predominance of the 3 and 4-rings PAHs in all the matrices was observed with benzo (a) anthracene dominating in all three species. Estimated daily intake (EDI) of PAHs through consumption of fish ranged from 0 to 0.0005 mg/kg/day, for prawn, 0 to 0.0002 mg/kg/day and for crab, 0 to 0.0002 mg/kg/day. EDI values were, however, lower than the reference dose (RfD) indicating low risk from consumption. Results of the estimated excess cancer risk (ECR) for Benzo (a) anthracene in fish, however, suggests that lifetime exposure to Benzo (a) anthracene through fish consumption would result in cancer risk.