Implications of Different Household Cooking Energy on Indoor Air Quality in Urban and Semi-Urban Settlements in Imo, South Eastern Nigeria
Energy is a basic necessity of life for meeting domestic, social and industrial needs of man. But the use of some of the energy sources has created problems in indoor environment that requires urgent attention. This study assessed the indoor air quality status as regards the effect of different household cooking methods from the use of nonrenewable energy sources in parts of Imo State. The cooking methods sampled were firewood stove, kerosene stove, charcoal stove, electricity stove and gas cooker. Indoor air quality was measured by digital air analyzers of different models continuously for 24 hours. Data collected were subjected to ANOVA using the SPSS 12.0 software, and mean values separated with FLSD) at P<0.05 as statistically significant. Results showed that CO and PM2.5 concentrations produced during the use of firewood stove in urban settlements recorded the mean (313.94± 21.77 and 476.06±203.09 and semi- urban settlement (320.48±25.03and 562.38±174.87. The overall mean indoor air pollutants in urban and semi-urban environment were in order of : SO2≥CO ≥PM2.5≥NO2 respectively, with CO, SO2 and PM2.5 being above the 100 (μg/m³), 80 (μg/m³) and 150(μg/m³) NAQS-2006 IAQ. Indoor air qualities from cooking methods in urban and semi-urban are statistically different at (P < 0.05) level. The findings further indicated that gas cooker and electric stove cooking methods have less harmful effects than fuel wood, charcoal and kerosene on the indoor air quality in the study area. This indicated that urban and semi-urban settlements were utilizing energy sources at the lower energy ladder, with fuel wood dominating. Based on the findings, cleaner energy sources should be used in order to reduce indoor air pollution in developing countries.