Fatty Acid Methyl Ester of Nigerian Spent Palm and Peanut Oils: Non-Food Option for Biodiesel to Safe Food Security and Environment (Part I)
In the awakening of Nigeria biofuel economy and reduced carbon footprint revolution, her targeted feedstocks such as sweet sorghum and palm oil are hidden threat to food security. To avoid this scenario, the present study derived fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from Nigerian spent palm and peanut oils (NSPO and NSPeO) as cheap and non-food feedstocks for biodiesel and safe environment. Fresh and spent Nigerian palm oil (NPO) and peanut oil (NPeO) were converted into FAME by one and two steps alkali transesterification using 6:1 molar ratio of methanol to oil, 1.0 % wt. potassium hydroxide pellets as catalyst at 60oC over 1 hr. Characterization of feedstocks and FAME were carried out using European (EN) and USA (ASTM) norms for quality biodiesel. The quality of final FAME obtained after two-steps alkali transesterification were within international norms for biodiesel except for alkali and alkaline earth metals that required further removal using adsorption process as a post-transesterification treatment. The present study reveals Nigerian spent palm and peanut oils as potential non-food feedstocks for biodiesel production to safe food security and environment.